Our Sea Kelp Bioferment supplies a complete nutrient medium to moisturize skin and scalp. The substrate for fermentation is kelp, a sea macroalga (Phaeophyta). Fermentation makes the cell contents of this alga readily available to our skin and scalp. This maximizes its moisturizing properties, as well as making nutrients required by the skin available. The ferment also has a calming effect that can reduce redness, itchiness and irritation.
The bioferment is rich in fucoidan, carrageenan, algin, minerals, and many active chemicals. It also provides minerals like iodine, copper, molybdate, magnesium, and others required as cofactors in enzymatic reactions of lipid metabolism and energy conversion. This product can be used as a base for many of our water soluble actives. Sea Kelp Bioferment is probably our favorite ingredient because it has so many uses.
In our Sea Kelp Bioferment we use Laminaria as substrate for fermentation. Laminaria grows in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean. We enrich the bioferment with extra fucoxanthin and fucoidans, also extracted from Laminaria.
Fucoxanthin is a pigment present in Phaeophyta (brown algae) that may protect skin from photo-aging caused by UV.
Fucoidans are sulfated polysaccharides with structures that depend on the plant source and growing conditions. Applied to the skin, fucoidan will increase the density of collagen bundles, decrease activity of proteases (enzymes that break down dermal proteins), increase scavenging of free radicals, and increase cell proliferation. These effects would be mediated through increased expression of ß1-integrin and may also help with wound healing.
Porphyridium, an extracellular polysaccharide produced by a red alga has sulfate groups attached. It also has non-reducing terminal D-xylopyranosyl and galactopyranosyl residues. It is known that this polysaccharide has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the xylitol residues may be responsible in part for the anti-inflammatory properties.
Astaxanthin gives our Sea Kelp Bioferment its color. Astaxanthin is similar to some pigments that give coral exoskeletons their color. This is not just a similarity in color but also in chemistry. Most corals obtain the majority of their energy and nutrients from photosynthetic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae that live within the coral's tissue, and these algae also produce pigments that protect the coral from the sun. Because of its particular molecular structure, astaxanthin serves as an extremely powerful antioxidant. It has a very effective quenching effect against singlet oxygen, a powerful scavenging ability for lipid and free radicals, and effectively breaks peroxide chain reactions. Carotenoids are effective at low oxygen concentrations, complementing the activity of vitamin E which is effective at higher oxygen concentrations. Astaxanthin has also been shown to enhance and modulate the immune system. The antioxidant and immunomodulating activities, in combination or separately, may reduce the acute inflammatory reaction in the skin and tissue just beneath it that follows excessive exposure to UV radiation.